Evaluation of approaches of gestational diabetes screening test in pregnant women
Objective: The aim of this study to evaluate the approaches of pregnant women to gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) screening test.
Methods: 102 women with gestational age is 24-28 week, at the age of 18 and over, who were not diagnosed with Type I or Type II DM before the pregnancy, with a single pregnancy, were included in the study. Socio-demographic characteristics of pregnant women, risk factors for GDM, whether GDM screening test and the reasons why pregnant women did not have screening test were questioned. Weight, body mass index, plasma glucose measurements and OGTT results of pregnant women with and without GDM risk factors were compared.
Results: 53 (51.96%) of 102 pregnant women included in the study did not have GDM screening test. As the reason for not having a test; seven (13.2%) of the pregnant women thought that they should be screened with another method without sugar, six (11.3%) did not recommend by their doctor, six (11.3%) read in the media that test was harmful, six (11.3%) thought that test would harm the baby, and six (11.3%) stated that they did not know about the test. Ten (18,9%) did not report any reason. The rate of women in the risk group for GDM was 87.3%. The highest risk factor was the maternal age above 25 years (79.4%). In addition, 27,4% of pregnant women had first-degree relatives with Type II DM, 8,8% had a history of giving birth more than 4 kg in their previous pregnancy and 3.9% of women were diagnosed with GDM in their previous pregnancy. In pregnant women in the risk group for GDM; the mean age, weight, BMI and 50 g OGTT result were significantly higher than the other group. GDM was detected in six of 49 women had OGTT and all were in the risk group.
Conclusion: GDM screening test rates of pregnant women are gradually decreasing. This is not due to educational level or socio-demographic characteristics. Pregnant women receive false information, especially through the media, and the importance of the issue cannot be understood adequately. Health personnel have important duties; risk factors that are proven to be associated with GDM should be questioned at first encounter with pregnant women. Screening test should be performed in early pregnancy in risky pregnant, who do not want to have screening tests should be followed up frequently with blood glucose measurements.
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