Pain and quality of life in osteoporosis
Osteoporosis is a progressive systemic skeletal disease characterized by compromised bone strength predisposing to an increased risk of fracture. Bone strentght means both bone density and bone quality. Osteoporosis has become more important among quality of life and socioeconomic aspect. Therefore it is assessed as a chronic disease that draws attention to the increased mortality coming from fractures, causes serious loss of physical functions, affects quality of life in a negative way, and causes chronic pain and social isolation. Nowadays, osteoporosis has been classified as a public health problem which has increased prevalence, negative physical and psychological effects, and big socio economic burden by World Health Organization (WHO).
- Chandler JM, Martin AR, Girman C et al: Reliability of an osteoporosis-targeted quality of life survey instrument for use in the community:OPTQoL. Osteoporos Int, 1998;8:127-135.
- Dequeker J, Raspe HH, Sambrook P. Osteoporosis. In: “Rheumatology”. (eds.) Klippel JH, Dieppe PA. St Louis, Mosby. 1994;1-10.
- Goldt DT. The clinical impact of vertebral fractures: quality of life in women with osteoporosis. Bone 1996 Mar;18 Suppl 3:185-189.
- Roberto KA. Chronic pain in the lives of older women. J Am Med Womens Assoc 1997 Sum;52(3):127-31.
- Akyüz G. Osteoporozda ağrı. Aktüel Tıp Dergisi 1997 Ekim;2(8):470-473.
- Bleicher Ma. Bone pain. Basle, Sandoz Pharma Ltd 1995;9-13.
- Aydınlı I. Ağrının Değerlendirilmesi. “Ağrı” içinde (ed) Hüsrev Hatemi. İstanbul, Abdi İbrahim AŞ. 1997;29-36.
- Melzack R. The Mc Gill Pain Questionnaire: Major properties and scoring methods. Pain 1975;1:275-279.
- Chapman CR, Syrjala KL. Measurement of pain. In: “The management of pain” (ed) Bonica JJ, Philadelphia and London, Lea and Febiger. 1990;580-594.
- Dequeker J. Management of osteoporosis. In: “Rheumatology”. (eds) Klippel JH, Dieppe PA. St Louis, Mosby. 1994;1-6.
- Tamayo Orozco J, Arzac Palumbo P, Peon Vidales H, Mota Bolfeta R, Fuentes F. Vertebral fractures associated with osteoporosis: patient management. Am J Med, Aug 1997;103:2A, 44S-48S; discussion 48S-50S.
- Lips P, Agnusdei D, Caulin F et al. The development of a European questionnaire for quality of life in patients with vertebral osteoporosis. J Rheumatol 1996;Suppl,103:84-85;discussion 86-88.
- Leidig Bruckner G, Minne HW, Schlaich C et al. Clinical grading of spinal osteoporosis: quality of life components and spinal deformity with chronic low back pain and women with vertebral osteoporosis. J Bone Min Res 1997 Apr;12(4):663-675.
- Lips P, Cooper C, Agnusdei D et al. Quality of life as outcome in the treatment of osteoporosis: the development of a questionnaire for quality of life by the European Foundation for Osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int 1997;7(1):36-38.
- Sindel D, Dilþen G, Kubat A. Postmenopozal osteoporozda yaþam kalitesi sonuçlarý. Romatol Týb Rehab 1995;6(3):144-148.
- Osteoporosis Quality of Life Study Group: Measuring quality of life in women with osteoporosis. Osteoporosis Int 1997;7:478-487
- Cook DJ, Guyatt GH, Adachi JD et al. Quality of life issues in women with vertebral fractures due to osteoporosis. Arthritis and Rheumatism 1993June, 36(6):750-756.
- Ross PD: Clinical consequences of vertebral fractures. M J Med 1997 Aug;103:2A,30S-42S;discussion 42S-43S.